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              Notes on charging of new energy vehicles

              With the vigorous development of new energy vehicle industry, safety has become the key factor restricting the development of the industry. According to the survey data of China Automobile Circulation Association, 72% of consumers think that safety is one of the main factors affecting the purchase of new energy vehicles. When we developed the "ceve regulation", we took the issues of widespread concern of consumers as the starting point, fully investigated the consumers' complaints about the current electric vehicle's endurance, environmental resistance, charging, experience, safety and other issues, and summed up three evaluation dimensions of energy consumption, safety and experience. In the safety dimension, in addition to the accident safety enforced by laws and regulations, the use safety and functional safety evaluation are added. While evaluating the environmental resistance and misoperation resistance of vehicles, we also need to guide consumers to improve their safety awareness and standardize the use habits of new energy vehicles from the perspective of vehicle use.

              The new energy class in this issue will focus on the matters needing attention in charging and using new energy vehicles

              As a consumer, of course, I hope that the longer the battery life of your car is, the better it will be. If you keep good charging habits, you can prolong its life. Let's have a look.

              1. Fast charging or slow charging?

              According to the research on battery charging mode of ceve regulation, it is found that for new energy vehicles on the market, whether fast charging or slow charging, the charging principle lies in the process of transferring lithium ion from positive electrode to negative electrode under the action of external electric energy, and the difference between fast charging and slow charging lies in the migration speed of lithium ion in the positive electrode of cell 。 When the continuous charging current is large, the ion concentration at the electrode increases, the polarization of the battery increases, and the internal resistance of the battery increases, which leads to the heating effect. Fast charging means that the charging current is increased. Frequent fast charging will accelerate the polarization of the battery and reduce the battery life. However, don't be too nervous. When using a car at ordinary times, the battery can be polarized at a normal speed by alternating slow charging and fast charging, so as to prolong the service life of the battery.

              2. To extend battery life, this problem should be avoided?

              Under frequent fast charging and low temperature environment, it is possible for lithium ions to precipitate on the surface to form dendrite lithium. Dendrite lithium will pierce the diaphragm and reduce the battery capacity. When the crystal reaches a certain amount, it will even pierce the cell diaphragm, causing battery short circuit, and in the most serious case, it will lead to vehicle spontaneous combustion.

              Therefore, in the daily use of vehicles, it is recommended to reduce the frequency of fast charging when possible, avoid low-temperature fast charging, which can extend the service life of the battery and reduce the safety risk.

              How long does the new energy vehicle charge?

              Will the charging time of new energy vehicles affect the service life of batteries? Through the interpretation of charging safety requirements for electric vehicles, ceve finds that the power batteries of new energy vehicles on the market can be roughly divided into two types: lithium iron phosphate batteries and lithium ternary batteries. For lithium-ion battery, there is a safe voltage space when charging and discharging. When the battery voltage is lower than the set minimum voltage and continues to discharge, there will be over discharge. The growth of copper dendrite caused by over discharge will cause internal short circuit of lithium-ion battery, thus increasing the probability of heating out of control; when the battery is overcharged, a large number of lithium ions overflowing from the positive electrode will deposit and dissolve on the negative electrode surface The catalyst is oxidized to produce a large amount of heat, which makes the battery temperature rise, and promotes the reaction between solvent and lithium metal to produce more heat and gas, which leads to the combustion of battery pack.

              Therefore, in the process of using new energy vehicles, we should grasp the charging time according to the actual situation of vehicles, and grasp the charging frequency with reference to the actual use frequency and mileage. In normal use, when the meter shows low power, it should be charged as soon as possible to avoid battery over discharge; when the meter shows that it is fully charged, it should stop charging to avoid overcharge. Over discharge, overcharge and insufficient charging will affect the performance of the battery, and even cause safety risks.

              Through the above introduction, I believe that you have a deeper understanding of the charging and using safety of new energy vehicles. With the continuous innovation and breakthrough of new energy vehicle technology and the continuous improvement and improvement of infrastructure, such as the continuous upgrading and evolution of ceve regulation evaluation system platform, consumers will be more scientific and assured in selecting and using vehicles!

              Future electronic connectors are faster, smaller, smarter and more environmentally friendly
              When the Internet of things and industry 4.0 become the new market engine, the component manufacturers such as te have a long way to go. In James' view, the core of these market hotspots is simply the word "connection", the connection between cars, the connection between household appliances, and the connection between security facilities, including in industrial applications, the connection between equipment. It's just that the requirements for connectors are getting higher and higher.
              In the future, the requirements of connectors are nothing more than faster, smaller, more intelligent and more environmentally friendly. For example, the automotive industry needs to ensure the reliability and high quality of connectors in a harsh environment. For the consumer electronics industry, lightweight is the most important thing, followed by reliability. However, the reliability of the two is not the same level. To a certain extent, the speed of the innovation of consumer electronic products determines two other special requirements: cost control and R &amp; D cycle shortening.
              In addition to the technical iteration, the regional distribution of connectors also varies with the change of market share. Over the years, the global connector production capacity has begun to transfer to Asia, especially to China. Some analysts believe that Asia has become the place with the most development potential in the connector market, and China is expected to become the fastest growing and largest market for connectors in the world.
              In the past, most connector suppliers made more use of China's low production costs. Now they are thinking more about how to serve this emerging market. The answer given by te is to transform the original mode of "made in China" into "made in China".
              Technical requirements for charging station of electric vehicle
              With the gradual promotion and industrialization of electric vehicles and the increasing development of electric vehicle technology, the technical requirements of electric vehicles for charging stations reflect a consistent trend, requiring charging stations to be as close as possible to the following objectives.
              1. Fast charging
              Compared with Ni MH and Li-ion power batteries with good development prospects, traditional lead-acid batteries have the advantages of mature technology, low cost, large battery capacity, good load following output characteristics and no memory effect. However, there are also some problems such as low specific energy and short driving range of primary charging. Therefore, in the current situation that the power battery can not directly provide more driving range, if the battery charging is fast, the fatal weakness of short driving range of electric vehicles can be solved in a sense.
              2. Universal charging
              In the market background of coexistence of various types of batteries and voltage levels, the charging device used in public places must have the ability to adapt to various types of battery systems and voltage levels, that is, the charging system needs to have a wide range of charging, and has a charging control algorithm of various types of storage batteries, which can be charged with different battery systems on various types of electric vehicles It can be charged according to different batteries.
              3. Intelligent charging
              One of the most critical problems restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles is the performance and application level of energy storage batteries. The goal of optimizing the intelligent charging method of battery is to realize the charging of non-destructive battery, monitor the discharge state of battery, avoid over discharge, so as to prolong the service life of battery and save energy. The application technology development of intelligent charging is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
              Optimized and intelligent charging technology, charger and charging station;
              Calculation, guidance and intelligent management of battery capacity;
              Automatic diagnosis and maintenance technology of battery fault.
              4. High efficiency of electric energy conversion
              The energy consumption index of electric vehicle is closely related to its operating energy cost. One of the key factors to promote the industrialization of electric vehicles is to reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicles and improve their economy. For the charging station, considering the power conversion efficiency and construction cost, the charging device with high power conversion efficiency and low construction cost should be preferred.
              5. Charging integration
              In line with the requirements of miniaturization and multi-function of the subsystem, as well as the improvement of battery reliability and stability requirements, the charging system will be integrated with the energy management system of electric vehicles, integrating transfer transistors, current detection and reverse discharge protection and other functions. Without external components, the charging system can realize a smaller and more integrated charging solution, thus providing an electric vehicle with a higher integration The rest of the components can save the layout space, greatly reduce the system cost, optimize the charging effect and prolong the battery life.
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              Distinction of connector, connector and terminal
              1、 First of all, distinguish the concept of "connector", "terminal" and "connector"
              ① Connector, or connector. Also called connector. It is a kind of component that electronic engineering technicians often contact. Also known as connectors, plugs and sockets. Generally refers to electrical connector. It is a device connecting two active devices to transmit current or signal.
              ② Connector is a kind of positioning joint connecting electronic circuit, which is composed of two parts, namely plug-in and connector. In general, they can be completely separated. The similarities between switch and connector lie in the change of contact state of their contact pairs to realize the purpose of conversion of the connected circuit. The essential difference is that the plug-in connector only has two states of insertion and removal, and the switch can be in two states It can realize the circuit conversion on the ontology, but the connector can't realize the transformation on the ontology. The contact pairs of the connector have a fixed corresponding relationship. Therefore, the connector can also be called a connector.
              ③ Terminal, English name terminal. Is used to achieve electrical connection of a kind of accessories products, industry is divided into the category of connectors. The terminal is used to facilitate the connection of wires. It is actually a piece of metal enclosed in insulating plastic, with holes at both ends, which can be inserted into the wire. Terminals can be divided into wuk terminal, European terminal series, plug-in terminal series, etc.
              2、 Distinguish "connector", "terminal" and "connector" from the scope of ownership
              ① "Connector = connector" is the first category, and the terminal is only one of the "connectors"
              What's the difference between a connector and a connector?
              Connector is the connection of line to line; connector is the connection between line and board and box. In real life, people often refer to the same thing vaguely.
              ② The terminal is part of the connector. Connector is a general term. In fact, the common connector we usually see includes two parts: the housing and the terminal. Housing is mostly plastic and plays a protective role, while terminal is a metal, which plays a general role.

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